HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy, labor and delivery, or breastfeeding is known as perinatal transmission and is the most common route of HIV infection in children. When HIV is diagnosed before or during pregnancy, perinatal transmission can be reduced to less than 1% if appropriate medical treatment is given. In Kenya, the Ministry of Health has set up guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. This is carried out by using the four pronged approach that includes:
Primary prevention of HIV infection in women.
Prevention of unintended pregnancy among HIV-infected women.
Interventions to reduce transmission from HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women to their children.
Care and support of women, children and families infected and affected by HIV and AIDS.